For this we must simplify in infection control thus allowing the members of the dental team to carry out the different procedures with the least possible drawbacks. The patterns of infection control, so as not to have very complicated behaviors that can not be carried out but simple strategies and methods to put into practice the procedures for infection control.
Infection control will then be based on personal barrier methods, correct cleaning and sterilization techniques for surfaces in the dental environment, proper instrument sterilization, appropriate waste management techniques, Handling of the teeth that we extract and the system of vaccines of the personnel that must have to have good health conditions. Initially we will try a little about the methods or mechanisms of personal barrier, that is to say how we are going to protect ourselves from being in contact at the time of treating a patient with all this amount of microorganisms.
Barrier mechanisms: the personal barriers will be composed of the
2.- caps and masks
3.- eye protectors, either lenses or face mask
Basically to attend a patient we have to comply with all these guidelines, to ensure patient safety and protect ourselves.
Robes or overalls:
It should only be taken in the office when treating patients, or working in areas where contaminated or potentially contaminated material is present, must be changed daily or visibly stained, and no food should be eaten while wearing these garments
As for the robes and the surgical monkey, the monkey that you carry (started talking about not sitting on the floor with the gown and so on)
There are other barriers such as disposable gowns. These gowns are sealed and can be placed over the surgical monkey. They are long sleeve gowns with their fist, which are generally used in more invasive procedures in the operating room (in the faculty it is very rare to USE THIS TYPE OF BATAS), however, there are also surgical aprons that also come in sealed packages and are sterile and can be placed on your monkey to ensure the smallest measure of microorganisms.
Hair is an important contaminant and a major source of staphylococci. The microbial population that is attracted and diffused by the hair, is directly related to its length and cleanliness. Follicles and hair filaments leave resident and transient fiber.
Remember that all these barriers must be used in the right way, to wear the cap we must have the hair fully collected when we are in the clinical area and covered completely by the cap. Remember that hair is a medium where staphylococci inhabit and so when we pass it by the patient is contaminated and that in our hair and we must always have it clean.
The mask should be used wherever aerosols or splashes of blood or contaminated material are suspected. They should be changed during patient treatment if they are visibly spotted, speckled or moist. After treatment, new masks should be placed before treating the next patient.
The tapaboca is extremely important to prevent all aerosols and microorganisms from entering the respiratory tract, we must use the mask correctly to prevent the passage of these microorganisms to our body through our airways, it is advisable that the mask is not manipulating , Touching, rising, lowering already with the contaminated gloves, once the tapaboca gets wet and loses its function of being a barrier; Once the mask is placed, adapt it well to the nasal bridge, covering both the nose and mouth, and once it is touched then discarded.
They should be used wherever there is a risk of contamination by splashes or aerosols from the mouth. Protectors should completely cover the eye area, above the eyebrows, without disrupting the dentist's direct vision.
As for the eye protectors can be either lenses or the protective mask, to avoid that the aerosols or splashes that are generated while we are working fall directly into the ocular mucosa and can produce conjunctivitis, abscesses in the eyelids and complicate everything, More recommended is the mask, because it protects not only the eyes but the skin that is exposed after the mask is placed.
Protective barrier. Snaps and Cap.
Explanation of cloth caps, hair completely inside, it is advisable to disposable cap, the mask should go on the nasal bridge to make the fold there and reach the free part of the chin, the use of tendrils, long not
Type of footwear comfortable and completely covering the foot, and socks that cover the ankle, feet covered by splashing scalpel leaves and it will produce an injury.
Nails short and without enamel.
Dental professionals should wash their hands before and after treating each patient and after uncovered hands touch inanimate objects that may be contaminated with blood, saliva, or respiratory secretions.
Another important point in terms of infection control is the handwashing technique. As we wash our hands we eliminate a lot of contamination and dirt and it is necessary to do it with specialized agents like alcohol and iodine. There are two ways to wash our hands :
The first routine washing, which is always done with water and soap simple and lasts more than a few seconds and the purpose of this to remove pollution and apparent dirt, this routine washing must do before and after using gloves before and After direct contact with a patient, basic clinical examination or when our hands have contact with any surface, we should immediately wash our hands. On the other hand there is the surgical antisepsis or the pre-surgical washing of the hands, which is performed with water and a special antimicrobial soap generally or based on alcohol or iodine and these substances will have a prolonged effect, ie eliminate microorganisms and avoid That for a certain moment these continue to multiply, the purpose of pre-surgical washing of the hands is to remove the microorganisms that are on the skin of our hands and maintain a persistent anti-bacterial and antiseptic effect, this wash has a duration of 2 to 3 minutes , Should wash the part of the nails, the fingers of the hand, the palm of the hand and also includes up to the forearm the purpose of surgical asepsis is to eliminate all those microorganisms and must be performed before the placement of the Sterile gloves when we are going to perform surgical procedures. The sink has a sensor when we stand in front of it, and the water is allowed to run from the fingers to the forearm, it is started by brushing with a special soap that is there, the part of the nails then between the fingers, the palm of The hand to the forearm then drop the water from the top down to then dry them or with sterile compresses or disposable napkins and pass to the dryers to completely remove any moisture that may be.
After washing the hands should be placed the gloves, we know that they are a basic protection to avoid the direct contact of our hands with the skin and mucosa of our patient, also avoid contact with their body fluids, any type of discharge Respiratory or purulent that the patient presents.
For the protection of staff and patients in dental offices should wear latex or vinyl gloves, where there is potential risk of contact with mucous membranes, saliva or blood. Non-sterile gloves are appropriate for clinical examination or other non-surgical procedures, and sterile gloves should be used for surgical procedures.
Due to the increase in cases of allergy to latex, manufacturers have developed gloves made from different materials such as polyvinyl chloride and nitrile vinyl.
There are the general examination gloves and the sterile gloves that come in sealed packages that have been previously sterilized that are the ones that we use for the surgical procedures ie to perform the surgeries to our patients, there are people who have developed hypersensitivity to the latex, .
Placement of surgical gloves by the dentist :
For the placement of the sterile gloves there are certain steps to place these gloves: open the package that is identified as a right glove and left glove, this is placed on the tray or on the asepsis table, orient the hands as indicated in the figure Of the wrapper and of a gripper with the forefinger and thumb we take the glove by its internal part, can not touch the outside of the glove must remain sterile, once we take the glove with the contralateral hand stretched by placing backwards Part in which we have grasped, then with the surface that is sterile we can take the other glove by its internal part and orient the hand back, once the two gloves have been placed if you can touch one hand with the other to adapt them adequately. There is another way of putting gloves on especially in operating procedures when we have an assistant who first puts on the sterile gown and then presents the gloves to the surgeon so that he only inserts his hand there and is in perfect condition. There are studies that have determined that patients feel more confident when they see an operator who complies with all these mechanisms and also when all units and contact surfaces are adequately treated with an envoplast, that gives more confidence to the patient, Is what we should convey.